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Assessment of Pregnancy Alcohol Use and Its Associated Factors Among Reproductive Women in Mecha Woreda of Northwestern Ethiopia | BMC Women’s Health

This chapter discusses demographic characteristics, prevalence of alcohol consumption, and variables that determine alcohol consumption during pregnancy in the Mecha Woreda Amhara region. It was presented in three parts. In addition, it includes demographic characteristics, the prevalence of alcohol consumption and its determinants. It was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage and inferential statistics such as binary logistic regression and multivariate analysis.

Socio-demographic and economic characteristics of respondents in the study area

A total of three hundred and eighty questionnaires were distributed and the majority of respondents were correctly completed. The average age of the respondents was 35.22 (± 7.359), with an age ranging from 18 to 49 years old. As shown in Table 1, the age of the respondents was classified into three age categories: 15-24, 25-34 and 35-49. Within these age categories, the majority of respondents were between the age groups of 35 and 49, followed by those aged 25 to 34. Regarding the marital status of the respondents, a large proportion of the respondents were married women. It is understandable that the majority of study participants in the marital status category were married. In terms of residence, half of the respondents were rural, while the other half were urban.

Table 1 Socio-demographic and economic characteristics of study participants, Mecha Woreda, North West, Ethiopia, 2021.

Based on the religious affiliations of study participants, the majority of respondents were Orthodox, followed by Muslims and Protestants, in descending order, respectively. Regarding education level, a few study participants were illiterate in their educational status, while the majority of respondents were literate. Respondents’ professional status also determines the amount of alcohol consumed during pregnancy. Of the study participants, the majority of study participants were housewives, followed by those engaged in their own business, while a small number of respondents worked as day labourers. Finally, according to the results of the study, the respondents in the study have an average monthly income of 9.74 to 48.69 USD, 48.71 to 97.37 USD and 97.39 to 146.64 USD, per descending order, respectively (Table 1).

The prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy in the study area

As shown in Table 2, the prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy was high. According to these results, a majority of respondents consumed alcohol during pregnancy; which could have affected the health of both women and children. The result showed that a small number of women were currently pregnant, while the majority were not currently pregnant. Regarding current alcohol consumption, a large number of respondents currently consume alcohol, while a small number do not. In terms of how often they drink alcohol, the majority of study participants drank 1-2 days a week, with only a small percentage drinking every day.

Table 2 Prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, Mecha Woreda, North West, Ethiopia, 2021.

Among drinking practices, the majority of respondents drink Tella (local beer), while a small number do not. The result shows that a small number of the study participants drink Areki (local beer), while a large number of them do not. Tej was consumed by some respondents, while many study participants did not drink it. Additionally, some of the respondents in the study drank wine, while the majority of respondents did not drink. It is understandable that the majority of respondents do not drink wine. Finally, a small number of respondents drink beer, while the majority of them do not drink beer.

The results of the study revealed that during the pre-pregnancy period, a significant number of respondents consumed alcohol before pregnancy, while a small number did not. The study indicated that in cases of drinking with a husband during pregnancy, a small number of respondents drank alcohol before pregnancy, while the majority of respondents did not. Regarding the motivation of friends to drink alcohol during pregnancy, a small number of respondents were motivated by friends to drink alcohol during pregnancy, while the majority of respondents were not motivated. by drinking friends. Another result also showed that some of the respondents had been encouraged to drink alcohol during pregnancy by relatives, while the majority of them had not been motivated by relatives to drink alcohol. This implies that the majority of respondents drink alcohol during pregnancy due to the very nature and personal behaviors of those who drink alcohol, rather than the motivations of their husbands, friends and relatives (Table 2). .

Determinants of alcohol consumption during pregnancy in the study area

The binary logistic regression model (BLRM) was used to establish a relationship between alcohol consumption during pregnancy and a set of explanatory variables. As Hulsizer and Woolf noted, binary logistic regression has become the preferred tool for predicting dichotomous outcomes in the social sciences because it is more flexible than any other model. [12]. In the study area, the binary logistic regression model was used to establish the relationship between the dependent variables (alcohol consumption during pregnancy) and the independent variables (sociodemographic and economic factors) affecting alcohol consumption. alcohol during pregnancy.

Variables associated with significance in bivariate logistic analysis were exported to multivariate logistic regression analysis. These variables significantly associated in the bivariate analysis were the age category of women from 25 to 34 and from 35 to 49, rural residence, illiterate women, average monthly household income from 48.71 to 97.37 USD, current pregnancy (yes), current alcohol use (yes), alcohol use before pregnancy (yes), alcohol use with husband during pregnancy (yes), miscarriage, hypertension blood pressure, premature birth and others occurring within your family (yes), attitude towards the risk of alcohol consumption during pregnancy (low and medium) and alcohol consumption during pregnancy is valid, of agree, disagree and strongly disagree. Then, these variables were entered into a multivariate logistic regression analysis to adjust for confounding factors. Then, the following variables were significantly associated with the prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy among reproductive women at a p-value p> 0.05, indicates that it has goodness of fit (Table 3).

Table 3 Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis for factors associated with prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy among reproductive women, Mecha Woreda, North West, Ethiopia, 2021.