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Aging and smoking named top 2 risk factors for all types of cancer

ATLANTIS — Cancer can be the unfortunate end result of many dietary and lifestyle choices, but a new study has identified the two most influential factors. Researchers from the American Cancer Society say that aging and smoking are the two most important risk factors when it comes to determining a person’s relative and five-year risk of developing it. any type of cancer.

Along with the big two, the study also notes that doctors should consider excess body fat, family history of cancer and a number of other factors when determining whether patients may benefit from improved cancer screening or prevention interventions.

“Cancer type-specific screening recommendations are based on the risk factors for that specific type of cancer,” says Dr. Alpa Patel, lead study author, senior vice president, population science at the ‘American Cancer Society, in a press release. “Our results are encouraging as we work to define subgroups within the general population that could benefit from improved cancer screening and prevention.”

These results are based on two prospective ACS studies: Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort and Cancer Prevention Study-3. The researchers analyzed these previous projects with the aim of identifying any risk factors linked to an absolute risk greater than 2% of any cancer within five years.

Cancer risk increases after age 50

In total, the researchers looked at 429,991 American participants, all of whom had no personal history of cancer. The team followed each person for five years. The study authors used multivariate Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for the association. Using the HRs, the researchers used the personalized consistent absolute risk estimate to calculate absolute risks by age.

The results show that 15,226 invasive cancers were diagnosed within five years of enrollment. The multivariate adjusted relative risk of any cancer was highest in current smokers compared to never smokers.

For men in particular, alcohol habits, family history of cancer, consumption of red meat and physical inactivity were also associated with cancer risk. In women, the team named body mass index (BMI), type 2 diabetes, hysterectomy, parity, family history of cancer, hypertension, tubal ligation and inactivity physics as risk factors for cancer.

When it comes to aging, the five-year absolute risk exceeded 2% in almost all participants over 50. This was also true for some participants younger than 50 who were current or former smokers, had a BMI over 25, or had a first-degree family history of cancer. Five-year absolute risk levels reached 29% for men and 25% for women.

“As we consider the possibility that future tests may identify multiple types of cancer, we need to begin to understand who is most at risk of developing any type of cancer,” Dr. Patel concludes. “These types of data are not widely available, but needed to inform future screening options, such as early detection blood tests for multiple cancers that could help save lives.”

The study is published in the journal Cancer.